Pattern and gas utilization pattern in the shaft of a blast furnace. Given the differences in permeability between the layers of coke and ferrous burden, the layer structure within the furnace dictates gas flow. Use of industrial gases in blastfurnace operation springerlink. Oxygen blast furnace gas is suitable for synthesis because nitrogen content is little. Dual fuel engine generates electricity and process heat from cupola furnace gas. Blastfurnace gas article about blastfurnace gas by the. Pdf the lower region of the blast furnace and the slagmetalgas reaction.
The blast furnace gas bfg generated in the bf is cleaned through a series of steps primary cleaning at dust catchercyclone and secondary cleaning at. Blast furnaces are similar to furnaces, but can smelt only ore blocks and toolsarmor made of iron, gold or chainmail. International chemical assessment documents cicad, european union scientific. Optimizing blast furnace operation to increase efficiency and. The gas flows up to where two uptakes merge into an offtake 9. Natural gas cokeoven gas co exhaust gas blast furnace gas converter gas process gases with high content of e. When a larger amount of coke exists, relatively, at the center of a blast furnace, the high temperature gas, consisting mainly of co generated at the tuyeres. A major advance in bf ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces metallurgical coke. Sweden a blend of coke oven and blast furnace gas is used as fuel 5. Pdf inprocess separation of zinc from blast furnace offgas. Converter gas, which is produced whenever carbon is extracted from pig iron in the converter plant by. The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced cfd technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization.
The raw materials require 6 to 8 hours to descend to the. The blast furnace gas bfg generated in the bf is cleaned through a series of steps primary cleaning at dust catchercyclone and secondary cleaning at gas cleaning plant before transporting it to the bfg holder flare stack after internal consumption. Media in category blast furnace gas the following 18 files are in this category, out of 18 total. Saves energy, lowers costs arcelormittals indiana harbor plant in east chicago, indiana, is the largest steel mill in the western hemisphere. Blast furnace it is a tall cylindrical furnace made of steel. Coal is carbonized in a reducing atmosphere and the offgas is collected and sent to the byproduct plant where various byproducts are recovered.
Iron ore processing for the blast furnace courtesy of the national steel pellet company the following describes operations at the national steel pellet company, an iron ore mining and processing facility located on the mesabi iron range of minnesota. A major advance in bf ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces. Blast furnace gas bfg is a byproduct of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to metallic iron. In blast furnace the process is also known as counter current process as solid raw material is being charged from the top and hot air is being blown from tuyeres installed in hearth area at the bottom. Natural gas wood other gases b coal petroleum hydroelectric power c industrial sector, major sources, 2019 a conventional hydroelectric power, wood, waste, geothermal, solar, and wind. Once an item and a fuel are placed into the blast furnace, the block state changes to lit and the item is smelted twice as fast as a regular furnace. Pdf energy analysis of a blastfurnace system operating with the. Smelting equipment yields one iron or gold nugget from their respective materials. This results in substantial improvement in furnace efficiency and thus the reductions of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Coke is the most important raw material fed into the blast furnace in terms of its effect on blast furnace operation and hot metal quality.
The furnace efficiency can be determined by both direct and indirect method. Effect of blast furnace burden water content on the blast. However, for several decades, the maximum level of blast temperatures remains unchanged at 1,200 1,250oc. During the process the impurities are removed in the form of slag and hot metal is produced. Energy performance assessment of furnaces bureau of energy efficiency 33 furnace efficiency the efficiency of a furnace is the ratio of useful output to heat input. Alternative method of determining the ffactor and gcv for. A world class blast furnace operation demands the highest quality of raw materials, operation, and operators. Aug 21, 2008 the industrys leading blast furnace operation technology. Since in blast furnace ironmaking, the ascending gas drives the reduction and melting, gas distribution within the furnace is essential. The pressure drop necessary for the gas cleaning is generated by a fan which sucks the gas through the scrubber and demister. This gas expander is specially designed for all technical requirements to process the blast furnace gas.
Investigating the effect of coal mineral matter on blast. The evolution of kobe steels blast furnace operations on january 16, 1959, kobe steel, then an openhearth and electric arc furnace steelmaker, fired up the kobe works no. The coke layer has a gasflow resistance smaller by a factor of 10 compared to that of the ore layer and has a high gaspermeability. It operates five blast furnaces, including the largest in the united states, known as the no. It is narrow at the top and has an arrangement for the introduction of ore and outlet for gases. Typical fuels used for the cowpers are natural gas, coke oven gas and blast furnace. Blast furnace gas, for example, which occurs as a byproduct inside the blast furnace and is used as a fuel gas for heating up the blast heating systems to generate hot air, contains twenty to twentyfive percent carbon monoxide. The principle of blast furnace operational technology and. A stateoftheart 3d cfd model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast. Tes global ltd is registered in england company no 02017289 with its registered office at 26 red lion square london wc1r 4hq. This shows the limited capacity of conventional hot stoves with internal.
Coproduction of pig iron and dme is studied by process simulation. At the extreme top of the uptakes there are bleeder valves 8 which may release gas and protect. Jan 31, 2012 this website and its content is subject to our terms and conditions. Highly resistant against dust particles and water drops the turbine blades and nozzles guarantee a very long lifetime 25 years and more. Blast furnace phenomena and modelling springerlink. A high quality coke should be able to support a smooth descent of the blast furnace burden with. The iron ore concentrate is now mixed and ready for the pelletizing process. Optimizing blast furnace operation to increase efficiency. Pdf the integration of the corex process with the blastfurnace process, the installation of co2 removal and gasandsteam chp plant displays many. Feature 1 kobe steels blast furnace operation technology. These furnaces transform iron ore, coke, limestone, and scrap into more.
Top firing waste incineration boiler ignition burner post combustion chamber. Blastfurnace gas is utilized as a fuel in metallurgical works. When the blast is enriched with oxygen, the nitrogen content of the gas is lowered and the amount of other gases including carbon monoxide and hydrogen, as well. The gas cleaning system contains two stages, the coarse cleaning system and the fine cleaning system. The trading budget for the nonegus, excluding the blast furnace gas units, is 8,008 tons as specified in the final sip approval for the no x sip call table 4 in the november 8, 2001 fr. Cowpers process unit, which is fired by blast furnace gas for indirect preheating of air. Blast furnace gas is considered a hazardous material. Mar 19, 2015 blast furnace gas it is the byproduct of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to produce molten iron. Stateoftheart computational fluid dynamics model optimizes fuel rate in. The difference to blast furnace gas cleaning is that the bof gas in not continuously produced but with a higher temperature, only during the blowing period. Creating steel from lowgrade iron ore requires a long process of mining, crushing. Blast furnace sizing considerations for incredible india.
High temperature top combustion hot stoves of kalugin design. During the process of iron making, the impurities are fluxed and removed as slag. Front, boxer, tangential firing slag tap furnace e. Nox, h 2 s, nh 3 furnace type dry bottom ash furnace e. Pdf file click here for printable worksheet a simplified diagram of a blast furnace is drawn below.
The blast furnace gas can be used to generate heat. It has a very low heating value, about 93 btucubic foot 3. Slags, ferrous metal, blast furnace 65996692 2660020 100% the following components comprise this basic blast furnace slag product and were used for hazard determination. Wed like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. This is the budget that idem is using for this current budget demonstration for transitioning sources from the trading program to 326 iac 102. Metallic silicates and aluminosilicates various various 94100 crystalline silica as quartz 14808607 2388784 02. Pellets are screened to meet the size specification. A typical blast furnace may be up to 32 metres in height and 10 metres in diameter. Heating of blast has been and remains one of the most important parameters that determine the economic efficiency of blast furnace operation. How a blast furnace works introduction the purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called hot metal.
Blast furnace, coke gas and converter gas for power production. There is the possibility to blend this gas with other off gases and you. So by reducing the constituents in blast furnace gas we can increase the calorific value and can be used to generate heat and rise the temperature in any furnace. Sulphur removal in ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking. The heat of combustion of blastfurnace gas is approximately 3. Combustion systems burners optimized for a wide range of fuels. The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom. A top gas recovery turbine has no negative effect on the blast furnace. Dme production from oxygen blast furnace gas has higher thermal efficiency and lower unit oxygen consumption in comparison with dme production from conventional coal gasifier gas. Also at the top of the blast furnace are four uptakes 10 where the hot, dirty gas exits the furnace dome. Blast furnace gas is a byproduct of blast furnaces where iron ore is reduced with coke into metallic pig iron. Inprocess separation of zinc from blast furnace offgas solid wastes article pdf available in iron and steel technology 20153. Media in category drawings of blast furnaces the following 127 files are in this category, out of 127 total. Minimization of blast furnace fuel rate by optimizing burden.
They have thick steel sides, lined with refractory bricks, to ensure that heat is not lost. The blast furnace gas bfg generated in the bf is cleaned through a series of steps primary cleaning at dust catchercyclone and secondary cleaning at gas cleaning plant before. These elements have different properties in the blast furnace. This code of safety is applicable to blast furnace dept. The blast furnace bf is the most widely used ironmaking. Pelletizing a pellet plant contains a series of balling drums where the iron ore concentrate is formed into soft pellets, in much the same manner that one rolls a snowball, to make a pellet about the size of a marble between 14 and 12. Pdf on feb 19, 2019, ion v ion and others published problems associated with combustion of blast furnace gas in blast.231 1361 292 564 737 250 812 314 1553 125 1160 1327 710 1020 1548 867 688 1433 1002 545 317 1006 665 1310 305 1200 610 819 1055 1377 947 423